- Monday, December 05, 2011

මේ ගැන හිතුවෙ නැත්තම් ලොක විනාසේ අත ලග........

yß;d.dr wdjrKh hkq
        mDÓúhg t,a,jkakd jQ iQ¾h rYañúlsrK j,ska fldgila mDÓúh u;=msg we;s jia;=ka u.ska wjfYdaIKh lr .kakd w;r ;j;a fldgila mDÓú jdhqf.da,hg uqodyÍ' fufia jdhqf.da,Sh wjldYhg uqodyefrtk rYañ úlsrKhka" jdhqf.da,fha we;s ldnkavfhdlaihsâ jdhqj" c, jdIam iy ;j;a tys w,am jYfhka we;s jdhQka u.ska wjfYdaIKh lr .efka' fufia jdhqf.da,fha we;s CO2 c, jdIam wdÈh u.ska mDÓúfhka bj;g hkakd jQ rYañ úlsrK wjfYdaIKh lr .ksñka mDÓú jdhqf.da,h WKqiqï lsÍu yß;d.dr wdjrKhhs' ^fuh yß;d.drhl we;s ùÿre jyf,ka th ;=<ska msg;g tk rYañ úlsrK wdmiq yß;d.drh ;=,gu mrdj¾;kh lrkakdla fuksh&

        iQ¾hhdf.ka mDÓúh u;=msg j._ ógrhla u; m;s;jk úlsrK Yla;sh 1370 වේට් muK fõ'  kuq;a mDÓúh u; iEu fmfofilgu tlúg fuu Yla;sh fkd,efí' thg fya;=j tla me;a;lg ojd, jk úg wfkla mea;g rd;%sh ùuhs'

        fï ksid Y=oaO jYfhka mD:=úfha tla ógrhla u; m;s; jk iQ¾h úlsrK Yla;sfha idudkH w.h } 343 වොට් muK fõ'

        by; úlsrK Yla;s jdhqf.da,h yryd toa§ l=vd m%udKhla tkï ishhg 6 la muK wdmiq wNHjldYh ;=< úisÍ hhs' ta jdhqf.da,Sh wkqu.sks' ;j;a 10 la muK mDÓúh yd id.r mDIaGhka u.ska wjldYhg mrdj¾;kh fõ' mDÓúh WKqiqï lsÍug fya;= jkafka b;sß 84] la muK jQ rYañ úlsrKhkah'

        fï wkqj mDÓúh WKqiqï lsÍu flfrys n,mdk rYañ úlsrKhka i;= cjh } 288 වෙට් muK fõ'

iajdNdúl yß;d.dr wdjrKh
Natural Green House Effect
        jdhqf.da,Sh ixhq;sh wkqj tys jeämqru we;s jdhQka fol jQ khsg%cka (N2) yd Tlaiscka (O2) jdhq lDIs úlsrK wjfYdaIKh lsÍula fyda uqod yeÍula fyda isÿ fkdlrhs' tfia ;dm úlsrK wjfydaIKh lrkq ,nkafka CO2" c, jdIam yd ;j;a iq¿ m%udKhkaf.ka jdhqf.da,fha we;s jdhq u.ska mDÓúh u;=msg idudkH WIaK;ajh f,i ie,flk fi 15 yd O2 yd N2 j,ska muKla iukaú; jdhqf.da,hl WIaK;ajh jQ 60C – 210C ;rï jQ WIaK;aj fjkila CO2 yd c, jdIam ksid wjfYdaIKh jkakd jQ ;dm úlsrK ksid we;s fõ' fuh iajdNdúl yß;d.dr wdprKhhs' Bg uq,ajkakd jQ jdhq yß;d.dr jdhq fõ' (green house gases) fuh iajdNdúl yß;d.dr wdjrKh f,i y÷kajkafka ñksid we;sùug;a fmr isg fuu jdhq jdhqf.da,fha ;snQ fyhsks'

m%.=Ks; yß;d.dr wdjrKh
Enhanced Greenhouse effect
le,E fy<lsÍu yd fmdis, bkaOk oyKh jeks ñksia l%shdldrlï ksid we;s jQ jdhQka u.ska we;s lrk yß;d.dr wdjrKfha jeäùu m%.=Ks; yß;d.dr wdjrKhhs' Wod (- CFC jdhqj laf,dafrda maf,dafrda ldnka

yß;d.dr wdjrKfha wjYH;dj
        yß;d.dr jdhq u.ska isÿlrkafka mDÓúh u;= msáka bj;g hk ;dm úlsrKh ;dm úlsrK Wrdf.k mDÓú jdhqf.da,h ;=< WIaK;ajh rojd.ekSuhs' fï ksid yß;d.dr jdhqf.da,h ;=< WIaK;ajh rojd .kakd í,ekaflÜgqjla f,i l%shdldrk nj m%ldY l, yel' fï wkqj yß;d.dr wdjrKh u.ska mDÓúh u;=msg ñksid we;=¿ Ôùkaf.a meje;aug WÑ; WIaK;ajhla mj;ajdf.k hhs'
Wod (- 1860 § CO2 jdhqj yd c,jdIam u.ska wfvdrla; úlsrK (Infrared Radiation) wjfYdaIKh lrkq ,nk wdldrh uekafkah' ysu hq.hlg fya;=j wvq jQ yß;d.dr wjdrKhla ;sîu hhs' ñkafvda,a fhdackd lf<ah'

yß;d.dr wdjrKh ms<sn| uq,au woyia
1&      1827 - ðka neiaáiaÜ f*dßh¾
^m%xY cd;sl .Ks;{hl=&
yß;d.dr jdhq i;= WKqiqïlrK Yla;sh y÷kd .ekSu' fï i|yd yß;d.dr wdjrKh hk ku Ndú;d lsÍu
2&      1860 - fcdaka ákafvda,a
^ì%;dkH cd;sl úoHd{&  c, jdIam yd  CO2 jdhqj u.ska wfodarla; úlsrK wjfYdaIKh lr.kakd wdldrh uekSu'
3&      1896 wdyskShia
^iaùvk cd;sl&
yß;d.dr jdhq idkaøKh jeäùu ksid we;súh yels n,mEu wOHhkh lsÍu jdhqf.da,Sh CO2 ixhq;sh fo.=K l, fyd;a WIKa;jh fi,aishia wxYl 5-6 olajd m%udKhlska by< hd yels nj Tyq m%ldY lf,ah'   
5&      1940 - Ô'tia' le,ekav¾ ^ì%;dkH cd;sl úoHd{hd&
        fmdis, bkaok oykh ksid jeäjk ldnkavfhdlaihsâ idkaøKh ksid we;s jk mDÓú WKqiqïlrKh .Kkh lsÍu'

6&      1957 - frdc¾ f,dfn,a iy yEkaia ^le,sfmdakshdfõ ial%smaia wdh;kh&
yß;d.dr jdhq ksid foaY.=Ksl fjkiaùula isÿúh yels nj m%ldY lsÍu'
fjk;a f,dal j, yß;d.dr wdjrKh
mDÓúfha muKla fkdj wi,ajeis isl=re yd w.yre u; o mDÓúhg iudk yß;d.dr wdjrKhla mj;sk nj fidhdf.k we;'
w.yre
mDÓúhg idfmalIj w.yre u; we;af;a ;=kS jdhq f.da,hls' w.yre u; mSvkh wfma jdhqf.d,Sh mSvkfhka 1$100 ls
 kuq;a tys jdhqf.da,h iïmQ¾Kfhkau jdf.a CO2 j,ska iukaú; neúka m%n, yß;d.dr wdjrKhla we;'
w.yre mDÓúhg wE;ska we;s ksid thg ,efnkafka idfmalaI wvq iQ¾h úlsrK Yla;shls' ta wkqj w.yre u; mej;sh hq;= WIaK;ajh57oC muK fõ' kuq;a tys mj;sk WIaK;ajh -470C ls' fuhska meyeÈ,s jkafka yß;d.dr wdprKh ksid w.yre .%yhd u; WIaK;ajh 10 0C  lska muK by< f.dia we;s njhs'

isl=re
isl=re wfma mDÓúh ;rï úYd, jia;=jls' kuq;a th ; jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh mDÓú jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh fuka ish .=Khla muK fõ' tys jdhqf.da,Sh CO2 yd i,a*shqßla wï, wxY=kaf.ka ks¾udKh ù we;' fuu wxY foj¾.h ksid iQ¾h úlsrK .%yhd u;g m;s; fkdjk ;rïh' mj;skafka 1] - 2] fï wkqj isl=re u; WIaK;ajh b;d my;a w.hla .; hq;=h' kuq;a yß;d.dr wdjrKfha m%;sM,hla f,i isl=re u;=msgg WIaK;ajh 525 0C muK fõ'


jdhqf.da,Sh ixhq;sh
jdhqj
idkaøKh ]
yhsv%cka
78'0000
Tlaiscka
21'0000
wd¾.ka
0'9300
ldnkavfhdlaihsâ
0'0350
óf;aka
0'00017
i,a*vfhdlaihsâ
úp,H
c, jdIam
0'4000

by; olajd we;af;a j¾;udkfha mDÓú jdhqf.da,fha ixhq;shhs' kuq;a wE; w;S;fha isg fï olajd jdhqf.da,fha ixhq;sfha ksh;j mej;S ke;' w;S;fha § mDÓú jdhqf.da,fha idkaøKh .skslkaolska msgjk jdhq idkaøKhg iudk jQjlehs úYajdi flf¾' tkï tjlg jdhq f.da,fha m%Odk ix>glh CO2 nj;a Bg wu;rj SO2< N2 hk jdhqkaf.ka hqla; jQ nj;a ms,s.kS'

        CO2 yd SO2 hk jdhQka c,fha Èh ù jdhqf.da,fhka w;=reoyka jkakg we;s nj;a c,fha wdøjH N2 jdhqj /iajkakkg we;s nj;a úYajdi l< yelsh'

        óg jir ì,shk 2 lg fmr jdhqf.da,fha Tlaiscka ;sî ke;'uq,a ld,fha isá Ôùka m%d:ñl Ôùka yßjdhq iajikhla isÿlr we;' jdhqf.da,hg Tlaiscka tl;= jkafka kS,yß;we,a .S j, mßkduhka iu. hhs úYajdi flf¾' kS, yß; we,a .S m%NdixYaf,aIKfha m%;sM,hla f,i jdhqf.da,hg Tlaiscka jdhqj uqod yer we;'

        fuu Tlaiscka uq,a ld,fha § id.rfha we;s fmdria whk fmßla whk f,i TlaislrKh ùug Ndú;d ù we;' jd;hg we;a;gu Tlaiscka tl;=ùug mgka .;af;a by; l%shdj wjika ùfuka njg idol we;' kS, yß; we,a.S wjqreÿ ì,shk 3 lg fmr yg .;a;;a jdhqf.da,hg Tlaiscka tlaù w;af;a wjqreÿ ì,shk 2 lg fmr isgh'

        Tlaiscka jdhqj jdhqf.da,hg tlaùfuka miqj m%Ndridhksl m%;sl%shd u.ska miqlf,l ´fidaka ia:rh by< jdhqf.da,fha we;súh' fuu ´fidaka ia:rh u.ska iQ¾h ú;srK j, we;s mdrcïnq, lsrK fmd,j u;g m;s; ùu j,lajd tu.ska Ôùkag we;súh yels ydksh wju lrhs'

        jdhqf.da,fha mßkduh yd Ôùkaf.a mßkduh w;r ksgHq iïnkaO;djhla mj;S' Ôj úoHd;aul ridhksl l%shdj,skaf.ka jdhqf.da,fha fï ixhq;sh mj;ajdf.k hdug by< odhl;ajhla ,efí' tu iajdNdúl l%shdoduh wNsnjd hk n,fõ.hla f,i ñksia l%shdldrlï wo biau;= ù ;sfí'

yß;d.dr jdhq
yß;d.dr wdjrKh flfrys m%n, n,mEula we;s lr jdhqka yß;d.dr jdhq f,i ye¢kafõ' fïjd w;=ßka iuyrla iajdNdúlju mDÓúh jdhqf.da,fha wvx.= jk w;r iuyrla ñksidf.a n,mEfuka jd;hg tla jQ tajdh'

Wod (-         ldnkavfhdlaihsâ
        óf;aka
        kshsá%la Tlaihsä
        yef,daldnka ixfhda.h
        ldnka fudfkdlaihsâ
        c, jdIam

ldnkavfhdlaihsâ
        j¾I 1991 § jdhqf.da,Sh CO2 idkaøKh oi,laIhlg fldgia 355 (355 ppm) muK nj .Kka n,d we;' tu jirlg oY ,laIhlg fldgia 1'8 lska muK by< hhs' jdhqf.da,Sh  CP2 ,efnkafka j¾I 1958 ka miqjh'
1958 § yjdhs ys fudakd f,dajd ksÍlaIKd.drh msysgqùfuka miq CO2 idkaøKh by< hdu ld¾ñl úma,jfhka miq we;s jQ ;;a;ajhla nj ish¨  o;a; úYaf,aIKh lsÍfuka y÷kd.; yelshs'

Wod(- wekagdáldfõ" .%Ska,ka;fha tl, m;s; jQ ysu w;r ysr jQ jdhq nqnq, j, CO2 idkaøKh uekSfuka ld¾ñl úma,jhg fmr jd;fha CO2 idkaøKh yÿkdf.k we;' tu jd;fha CO2 idkaøKh oi,laIhlg fldgia 280 ls' 1958 yjdhs ksÍlaIKd.drh lrk úg CO2 idkaøKh oi ,laIhlg fldgia 315 ls' 1991 § th oi,laIhlg fldgia 355 ls'

        j¾I 1958 isg 1991 olajd ld,h ;=< jdhqf.d,Sh CO2 idkaøKh oi ,laIhlg fldgia 40 lska by< f.dia we;' tkï fuu ld,h ;=< jdhqf.da,hg ldnka f..dfgdka 80 la tl;= ù we;'

        jdhqf.da,Sh CO2 idkaøKh iD;=uh fjkiaùula o fmkakqï lrhs' Wod(-0 W;=re w¾Of.da,fha jika; yd .%siau iD;=j, m%Ndixif,aIKh ksid CO2 idkaøKh my, jefÜ'

        fyauka; iD;=fõ§ Ydlj, iajikh m%uql;ajh .kS' fld< ye,S uefrkakg wdrïNjk fyhska úfhdack l%shdj,sh jvd;a fõ.j;a ù jdhqf.da,Sh CO2 idkaøKh by< hhs'

        CO2  + H2O                     CH2O  + O2

        CH2O  + O2                                CO2  + H2O

ñksia l%shdldrlï yd CO2   idkaøKh jdhqf.da,Sh CO2  idkaøKh flfrys n,mdk m%Odk ñksia l%shdldrlï 2 ls'
1              bkaOk oykh
2              le,E úkdY lsÍu ^jk yrkh&


1990
2025
2050
2000
n, Yla;s
6'2
11'1
13'7
20'4
jk yrKh
1'3
1'1
0'8
-0'1
uq¨ m%udKh
7'5
12'2
14'5
20'3

fmd,si bkaOk oykh ksid;a isfuka;s ksIamdokh jeks ld¾ñl l%shdj,ska ksid;a jdhqf.da,Sh CO2   idkaøKh 1860 jif¾ isg is>% jeäùula fmkakqï lrhs' f,dal hqoaO fol iuj,§ iy 1930 f,dal wd¾Ól miqnEfï§ jdhqf.da,hg CO2  tl;=ùu 2] olajd my; jegqks'

        rgj,a jYfhka .;a úg f,dalfha CO2  jdhqj uqodyßk m%Odk rg jkqfha weußld tlai;a ckmohhs' 24] tlai;a cd;Skaf.a mßir ixúOdkfha jd¾;d wkqj fojk úYd,u wdh;kh fidaúhÜ foaYhhs' ^19]& Ökh 9] cmdkh 5] c¾uksh 4] ì%;dkH 3] lao jYfhka jdhqf.da,hg CO2  uqod yÍ' bkaOk j¾. wkqj ie,l+ úg CO2  § jdhqj uqod yeÍu i|yd 1960 .kka j,§ uq,a ;ek .;af;a iDK bkaOkh ^46]& isÿj bkaOk Ndckfha 39] CO2  tl;=úh' kuq;a 1980 .Kka jk úg øj bkaøk Ndú;fhka 41] la o >K bkaOk Ndú;fhka 40] lao CO2  jd;hg tl;= lsÍug odhl ù we;'

1965 § úúO bkaOk u.ska jdhqf.da,hg tl;= l< CO2  m%;sY;h
1958 § úúO bkaOk oykfhka jd;hg tl;= jQ CO2  m%;sY; jkdka;r mßyrkh ksido 1850 yd 1985 ld,h ;=< jdhqf.da,hg uqod yerekq ldnka m%udKh f..dfgdka 115 la muK fõ' jkdka;r mßyrKfha § jdhqf.da,hg  CO2  tl;=jkqfha'
1              le,E t<sfldg ms,siaiSu
2              uq,a" m;%" l|ka jeks ffcjialkaOhka Èrdm;aùu
3              le,E j,ska ,nd.kakd ±juh ksIamdok wdÈfha TlaislrK l%shd
4              mdxY=uh ldnkaj, TlaislrKh

jkdka;r lmd fldgd úúO ixj¾Ok lghq;=j,g fhdod .ekSu ksid jkdka;r moaO;Ska iïmQ¾Kfhka u mdfya wfydais ù f,dj mqrdu jkdka;r moaO;Ska j|ù hdfï ;¾ckhlg uqyqK § isà'

Wod(- 20 jk ishji wdrïNfha §
Y%S ,xldfõ jkdka;r m%udKh N+ñhg idfmalaIj } 70]
2001 jk úg Y%S ,xldfõ N+ñhg idfmalaIj jkdka;r } 20]
f,dal iajdNdúl ldnka pl%h yd ldnkavfhdlaihsâ m%;sjHdma;sh

f,dalfha jdhqf.da,Sh CO2  idkaøKh 1850-1986 ld,h ;=,§ oi ,laIhlg fldgia 288 isg oi ,laIhlg fldgia 355 olajd by< ke. we;s nj m%lg lreKls'

óg uQ,sl odhl;ajh olajd we;af;a fmdis, bkaOk oykh yd jkdka;ryrKh yd N+ñ Ndú;fha fjkiaùuh' Bg wu;rj jdhqf.da,fhka CO2  bj;a ùfï iajdNdúl l%shdldrlï ksid we;s jQ isoaê .kkdjls' fuu isoaëka ys tl;=j tl;= ù ldnka pl%h u.ska olajhs'

C pl%h
jdhqf.da,hg CO2  tl;=jkafka"
1              Ôù iajikh
2              ffcù ialkaO úfhdackh
3              ffcùh yd ridhksl l%shdj,s
4              id.ruh fjkiaùu

jdhqf.da,fhka CO2  bj;aùug n,mEyelafla
1              m%NdixYaf,aIKh
2              ffcùh yd ridhksl l%shdj,s
3              id.ruh wjfYdaIKh

jdhqf.da,Sh jd;fha CO2  idkaøKh jeäùu by; CO2  tl;= ùU yd bj;aùfï wka;rhg idfmalaIj isÿfõ'


uqyqÿ uÜgu flfrys n,mEu
f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh ksid ñksid flfrys jvd;a n,mEï we;slrkq we;af;a uqyqÿ c, uÜgu by< hduhs' miq.sh Y;j¾Ih ;=< fi'ó' 10-20 olajd m%udKhla uqyqÿ c, uÜgu by, f.dia we;' fï i|yd n,md we;af;a jdhqf.da,Sh WIK;ajh 0'5 0C jeäùu muKs'

        yß;d.dr wdprKh ksid mD;=ú jdhqf.da,Sh WIaK;ajh 1'5-4'5 0C olajd m%udKhlska by< hkq we;' iSudldÍ idok ñksidg jdisiy.; f,i n,mEjqj fyd;a 2030 § uqyqÿ c, uÜgu 20-100 cm m%udKfhka by< ke.sh yels njg .Kka n,d we;'

        ngysr wekagdáldfõ we;s whsislÿ Èhù .shfyd;a uqyqÿ uÜgu óg¾ 5-7 olajd m%udKhlska Wjo by, hd yelsh' kuq;a tjekaklg Y; j¾I .kkdjla .; úh yelshs'

mDÓú WKqiqïlrKfhka uqyqÿ c, uÜgu by, hdu ñksidg b;d wfõKsl úh yelshs'
Wod (-         1' f,dal ck.ykfhka wvlg jdiia:dk wysñùu
        2' fjr,dikak m%foaY ,jk iys; c,fhka ¥IKh ùu
        3' j.=re ìï yd l,mq wdY%s; ffcj m%cdjka úkdY ùu'
        4' id.r wdY%s; ksIamdÈldj fjkia ùu'
        5' fjr,dY%s; jrhdka" ckdjdi k.r wdÈhg ±ä n,mEï isÿùu'
        6' uqyqÿ u;=msg c,fha WIaK;ajh by< ke.Su'
        7' c,fha pH w.h my; jeàu ksid fldr,a mr úkdY ùu'
        8' lDIsld¾ñl ìï ksire ìï njg m;a ùu'
        9' ud,Èjhsk jeks l=vd ¥m;a w;=reokaùu ^udI,a ¥m;a" gqId¨ ¥m;a&
        10' id.r c, uÜgu by, hdu ksid f,dalfha úYd, .x.d Tiafia rg ;=<g uqyqÿ c,h .,d hdu'

flfia fj;;a uqyqÿ c, uÜgu by, hdu l%ñl tlla fj;ehs wfmalaId l< yel' kuq;a tljr c, uÜgu by< hk wjia:d l,d;rlska we;súh yelsh' ^Wod (- WIaK l,dmSh m%foaYj, olakg ,efnk iq¿ iq,x ;;ajh&

        ÿmam;a fmdfydi;a nfjka f;drj f,dj iEu rglgu mdfya n,mE yels  fuu f.da,Sh WKqiqï ;r.fhka w;aúh yels m%;súmdl mrïmrd.Kkdjla miqmig ;,a¨ l< yelafla wm mrïmrdfjka wkd.; mrïmrd j,ska  whf.a mQ¾K wjfndaOh yd Bg fya;= jQ idOl u¾Okh lsÍu ;=<sks'

fNda. wiajkq flf¾ n,mEu'
f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrK fNda. wiajkq ,eîu flfrys n,mdk wdldrh ms<sn| úoHd{hska fmdÿ ms,s.ekSu jkafka CO2  Wmfhda.S lrf.k iEfok m%:u ixfhda.h wkqj Ydl ldKav 2 lg fnod we;' tajd kï  C3 yd C4 fõ'
C4- j¾:udk CO2 idkaøKh hgf;a m%NdixYaf,aIKh ld¾hlaIuh
C3 CO2 idkaøh jeäl, úg jeä jdish fmkajhs'

Wod (-
mj;sk CO2 idkaøKh fo.=K l<fyd;a C3 ldKavfha Ydlj, wiajekak 10-50] olajd m%udKhlska by< hk nj;a C4 ldKavfha Ydlj, wiajekak by< hkafka 10] lska muK nj;a lrk ,o m¾fhaIK j,ska fidhd f.k we;'

jeä CO2 idkaøKhg md;% jQ úg Ydl m;% j, mQál jeiSfuka c, ysÕlug uqyqK § we;s Ydlj, W;afõokh wvqùu c, mßfNdackh ld¾hlaIuj by< hhs'
tfiau CO2 idkaøKh jeä jQ úg mQál jeiSu isÿùfuka wys;lr jdhq ¥Ilhkaf.ka Ydlh wdrlaId fõ'

úúO rgj, isÿlrkq ,enQ m¾fhaIK 437 úu¾Ikhg ,la l, lsïfnd,a keue;s úoHd{hd úiska mj;sk CO2 idkaøKh fo.=K l, úg wiajekak 33] lska by< hk nj ks.ukh lr we;' kuq;a fndfyda úoHd{hka CO2 idkaøKh jeäùfuka miq mßirfha isÿúh yels fjkia lï mokï lrf.k wiajekak by; w.hg jvd my, hd yels nj m%ldY lrhs'

óf;aka ^Ôj jdhqj&
ÿmam;df.a ys;j;d óf;aka jdhqjhs' fuu bkaOk m%Njhla f,i ÈhqKqfjñka mj;sk rgj, Ndú;d flf¾'
fuh bkaOkhla f,i Ndú;d jqjo yß;d.drjdhqjla f,i wo úoHd{hka óf;aka ms<sn| ±ä wjOdkhla fhduq lrhs'

        wfkla yß;d.dr jdhq iu. iei§fï § óf;aka b;d wêl f.da,Sh WKqiqï lrk úNjhls' Wod (-CO2 fuka 20 .=Khl WKqiqïlrK úNjhls'

1980 miq f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh flfrys óf;aka j, odhl;ajh 15] isg 18] olajd by< f.dia we;' mßirfha óf;aka idkaøKh jeäùu flfrys n,mdkafka ñksia l%shdldrlïh'

fï wkqj m%Odk óf;aka m%Nj rdYshla y÷kd.; yelshs'
1              iajdNdúl f;;a ìï
2              ù j.dlrk l=Uqre
3              ffcj ialkaO oykh
4              wm øjH neyerkh
5              Ôjjdhq ckl
6              fldïfmdaiaÜ j,j,a
7              wmøjH fmdl=Kq moaO;s
8              m,;=re yd t<j¨ fj<|fmd, wmøjH
9              l=Kq j;=r ldKq
10            frdauka:lfhda ^.jhka" neg¿jka" t¿jka jeks YdlNlaIlhska&

fuhska i,lk úg óf;aka ñksidf.a ñ;=re jdhqjls' kuq;a f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh flfrys óf;ka j, n,mEu i,ldne,Sfï§ thska mekúh yels wys;lr n,mEï wju lr.ekSug mj;sk ±kqu Ndú;d lsÍu ñksidf.a hq;=luls'

khsá%la Tlaihsâ
f.da,Sh WKqiqïldrlhla f,i khsá%la Tlaihsâ  CO2 jdhqj fuka 290 jdrhla m%n,h' jdikdjlg jd¾Islj jdhq f.da,hg khsá%la TlaihsÜ tlajkafka idfmalaIj wvq m%udKhls'

jdhqf.da,fha mj;sk yhsg%ia Tlaihsâ bj;a jkafka
m%Ndridhksl úfhdaclhka c,c yd mdxY=uh  moaO;Ska  u.ska kuq;a ta b;d w,am jYfhks'
yhsg%ia Tlaihsâ m%Ndj
1              id.r
2              mi ^khsá%lrKh u.ska&
3              fmdis, bkaOk oykh
4              fmdfydr yd N+.; c,h

fï jk úg úoHd{hska ish¨ kshsá%ia Tlaihsâ m%Ndj y÷kdf.k we;' f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh wju lr .ekSu i|yd b;d ixhuhlska lghq;= lsÍfuka  jd;hg tl;=jk khsá%ia Tlaihsâ jdhq m%udKh wvq lrf.k jdhqf.da,S jd;fha khsá%la Tlaihsâ idkaøKh 70-80] muK m%udKhlska wvqlr.; hq;=hs' fuh ÿIalr ld¾hhla jqjqo iduQyslj ch.; yel'

mef,daldnka ixfhda.h
laf,dfrdmaf,dafrdldnka o (CFC) we;=m;a yef,daldnka ldKavhg wh;a ixfhda. yß;d.dr jdhq f,i l%shd lrhs' yef,daldnka ixfhda.j, idkaøKh b;d wju jqj;a tajdfha ;dm wjfYdaIKfha ;rx. wdhduh wix;Dma; fyhska úlsrK wjfYdaIKfha idfmalaI n,mEu b;d m%n,h'

        laf,dÍka yd fn%dóka wvx.=yef,da ldnka ixfhda. ia:rf.da,fha ´fidaka jdhqj flfrys W!k;duh n,mEula we;slrk nj m%lg lrekls' fuys§ isÿjkafka  flfia jqj;a iajdNdúl jdhqf.da,Sh jd;fha hï laf,dÍka m%udKhla ;sî we;' id.r j,ska yd ffcj ialkaO oykfhka we;sjk ó;hs,a laf,darhsâ ksid jdhqf.da,hg laf,daÍka tl;= ù we;'

        laf,daÍka wvx.= ixfhda. ndú;hg .ekSu wdrïN jkafka 1920 § muKh' ú§fï WmlrK" Ys;lrK" fmk wjdrK wdÈh ksid jdhqf.da,Sh Cl idkaøKh by< .sfhah' tfiau CFC ixfhda. c,fha wødjH neúka c,fha Èhù bj;a ùula isÿ fkdfõ' tfiau CFC wvqùug fya;=jk ffcùh m%;sl%shd o ke;'

        yef,daldnka ixfhda.j, mßj¾;S f.da,fha wdhqld,h b;d by< uÜgul mj;S' fï ksid fïjdhska we;lsjk mdßißl n,mEu ms<sn| jvd;a wdodykhfhduq l< h;=h' yef,da ldnka m%Njh
1& ñksia ld¾ñl lghq;=
·         Ys;ldrl f,i CFC-12, CFC 114
·         fmk msìk ldrl f,i CFC 11, CFC12
·         ødjl f,i CFC113, LH3 CCl3, CCl4
·         .sksksùfï WmlrK Nalon 1211, 1301

ldnka vfhdlaihsâ
ldnkavfhdlaihsâ idfmalaIj f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh i|yd wvq odhl;ajhla olajhs' kuq;a jdhqf.da,fha mj;sk ldnkavfhdlaihsâ idkaøKh fï i|yd ie,lsh hq;= odhl;ajhla olajhs' CO2 j, wvq wdhqld,hla ksid fuys §¾.ld,Sk n,mEï ms<sn| f;dr;=re jd¾;d fkdfõ'

ldnkavfhdlaihsâ idkaøKh by, hdug m%Odk fya;=j fmdis, bkaOk oykhhs' CO jdhqf.da,fhka bj;aùfï tlu u. OH- iu. we;s m%;sl%shdjhs' tfiau CO bj;alsÍu i|yd mio iq¿ n,mEula we;s lrk nj fidhdf.k we;'

f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh yd ffcj úúO;ajh
World wide fund for Nature keue;s ixúOdkh 2000 jif¾ fya.a kqjr meje;a jqkq f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh ksid we;súh yels mdßißl n,mEï keue;s iuq¨jg jd¾;djla bÈßm;a lf<ah' thg wkqj fï Y; j¾Ih wjidkfha .yKfhka 1$3 fjkia úh yels nj m%ldYjk w;r iuyr Ydl yd i;aj úfYaI iïmQ¾Kfhka j|ù hhs'
Wod (- Walrñ, Red Knot Emperor goose hk i;=ka
·         f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh ksid fldiagßldfõ Golden toad kï f.ïnka úfYaIh ±kgu;a ñh hdug mgkaf.k we;' tfiau meismsla id.r c,fha WKqiqu by< hdfuka Pacific Salmon .ykfha b;d my, jeà we;'
·         f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh ksid fldr,amr úkdYù hdu'
·         Ñldf.da" we;kaia" kjÈ,a,sh jeks k.rj, iuyr ld,j,§ we;sjk wêl Wkqiqu ksid iEu jirlu ñksiqka úYd, m%udKhla ñhhdu'
·         fuys Wmßu wjia:dj jkafka uqyqÿ c, uÜgu by, hdfuka ñksia jdiia:dk wysñùuhs'
·         yß;d.dr ;=< m,.=á j.d l< yelshs' kuq;a yß;d.dr wmorejka yodjvd .ekSug iqÿiq ;ekla fkdfõ' fï wkqj ñksidf.a hymeje;au i|yd f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh md,kh lr.ekSug iduQysl m%h;akhla f,daljdiSka úiska oßh hq;=h'
f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh yd cd;Hka;r .súiqï
´fidaka úhk laIh ùu md,kh lsÍu yd f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh md,kh mrud¾: fldg.;a wka;¾cd;sl .súiqï iïuq;Ska lsysmhls'
1              úhkd iïuq;sh
2              fudkaá%h,a uqm m;%h
3              lafhdaf;da uq, m;%h
úhdkd iïuq;sh
        1974 § iqm%lg Natute kï jQ úoHd;aul m%ldYh fud,Skd yd frda,kaâ kï úoHd{hska fofkd bÈßm;a lrñka ñksia l%shdldrlï ksid jdhqf.da,hg tlajk CFC jdhqj u.ska ´fidaka ia:rh úkdY lrk nj fmkajd ÿkafkah' fuhska miq 1977 § tlai;a cd;Skaf.a mdßißl jevigyk u.ska ´fidaka ia:rh /l.ekSfï f,dal l%shdldÍ ie,eiaula wjYH;dj wjOdrKh lf<ah'

        fï wkqj 1958 § úhkd ys /iajQ rgj,a lsysmhla ´fidaka ia:rh /l.ekSu i|yd wka;¾cd;sl iïuq;shla lekvdj w;aika ;eîh'

fudkaá%h,a uq, m;%h
1785 § we;slr.;a ú.dkd iïuq;sh bÈßhg f.khñka 1787 j¾Ifha§ lekvdfõ fudkag%sh,a k.rhg /ia jQ rgj,a .kkdjl ksfhdað;fhda by; mrud¾:hsu uq,alrf.k ft;sydisl .súiqulg t<Uky' fuh Montreal Protocol f,i y÷kajhs'

        thg 1987 rgj,a 14 la w;aika ;enQ w;r 1988 § ;j;a rgj,a 13 la w;aika ;eîh' wo jk úg rgj,a 166 ka thg w;aika ;nd we;' tu rgj,a f,dal ck.ykfhka 95] ksfhdackh lrhs'
1997 § rdcH kdhlhka /ia ù fudkaá%h,a uq,a m;%h fld;rï id¾:l ù we;a±hs úu¾Ykh lf<ah' túg fy,sjQfha mef,dah j¾." ó;hs,a laf,darf*daï  CFC, jeks øjH iyuq,skau jdf.a ksIamdokh kej;S we;s njhs' fndfyda rgj,a ;u b,lal imqrdf.k we;' flfia fj;;a 2000 jif¾ isg ´fidaka ia:rh kej; l%ufhka h:d;;a;ajhg m;aúh yels nj úoHd{hskaf.a úYajdihhs'
lafhdaf;da uq, m;%h
1992 ßfhda kqjrg /iajQ rgj,a 174 rdcH kdhlhska f.da,Sh foaY.=Kh wdrlaIdlr .ekSug tlÕ;djh m, lf<ah' 2000 § l%s'j' 1990 ;rug jdhqf.da,hg wys;lr jdhqj uqodyeÍug mshjr.kakd nj Tjqka m%ldY lf<ah' 1995 jif¾§ n¾,ska kqjr mej;s foaY.=Ksl iuq¨fõ§ ßfhda iuq¨fõ§ we;slr.;a ;SrK m%udKj;a fkdjk nj;a foaY.=Ksl fjkiaùï md,kh lsÍug kS;Hdkql+, ne§ula wjYH nj;a ;SrKh úh' tfiau ixj¾ê; rgj,a muKla fkdj ixj¾Okh fjñka mj;sk rgj,a o kS;suh .súiqulg t<ôh hq;= nj ;SrKh úh'

1997 foieïn¾ 1-11 olajd cmdkfha lafhdaf;da k.rfha meje;ajqKq tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ld,.=Ksl fjkiaùïms<sn| iuq¨fõ§ yß;d.dr jdhq uqod yeÍu wvq lsÍu ms<sn| .súiqulg t<Uqks' fuh lafhdaf;da uq, m;%hhs'
fuhg wkqj
1              ixj¾ê; rgj,a yß;d.drjdhq md,kh lsÍug kS;suh ne§ula we;slr .ekSu
2              úúO rgj,g yß;d.dr jdhq ksl=;a lsÍug úúO uÜgï kshu lsÍu
3              by; iSud 2008-2012 mia jirl ld, iSudjla ;=< imqrd,Su wd§ lreKq we;=,;a  úh'

lafhdaf;da uq,m;%h f.da,Sh WKqiqïlrKh md,h lsÍu mokï lr.; jeo.;a ft;sydisl .súiquls' wdrïNfha§ ixj¾Okh jkakd jQ rgj,a thg wh;afkdjqqjo miqj  fuh ish¨ f,dal m%cdjg wh;a ld¾hhla neúka Tjqkao fuu .súiqug w;aika ;eîh '

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